Title

Impaired osteoblast and osteoclast function characterize the osteoporosis of Snyder - Robinson syndrome.

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

3-7-2015

Journal

Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases

Volume

Volume 10, Issue 1

Issue

1

Inclusive Pages

27

Abstract

Background

Snyder-Robinson Syndrome (SRS) is an X-linked intellectual disability disorder also characterized by osteoporosis, scoliosis, and dysmorphic facial features. It is caused by mutations in SMS, a ubiquitously expressed gene encoding the polyamine biosynthetic enzyme spermine synthase. We hypothesized that the tissue specificity of SRS arises from differential sensitivity to spermidine toxicity or spermine deficiency.

Methods

We performed detailed clinical, endocrine, histopathologic, and morphometric studies on two affected brothers with a spermine synthase loss of function mutation (NM_004595.4:c.443A > G, p.Gln148Arg). We also measured spermine and spermidine levels in cultured human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) and fibroblasts using the Biochrom 30 polyamine protocol and assessed the osteogenic potential of hBMSCs.

Results

In addition to the known tissue-specific features of SRS, the propositi manifested retinal pigmentary changes, recurrent episodes of hyper- and hypoglycemia, nephrocalcinosis, renal cysts, and frequent respiratory infections. Bone histopathology and morphometry identified a profound depletion of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, absence of a trabecular meshwork, a low bone volume and a thin cortex. Comparison of cultured fibroblasts from affected and unaffected individuals showed relatively small changes in polyamine content, whereas comparison of cultured osteoblasts identified marked differences in spermidine and spermine content. Osteogenic differentiation of the SRS-derived hBMSCs identified a severe deficiency of calcium phosphate mineralization.

Conclusions

Our findings support the hypothesis that cell specific alterations in polyamine metabolism contribute to the tissue specificity of SRS features, and that the low bone density arises from a failure of mineralization.

Peer Reviewed

1