Title

Unusual sites for hemodialysis vascular access construction and catheter placement: A review

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

1-1-2015

Journal

International Journal of Artificial Organs

Volume

38

Issue

6

DOI

10.5301/ijao.5000416

Keywords

Arteriovenous fistula; Central venous catheter; End-stage renal disease; Hemodialysis; Surgical arterioarterial fistula; Surgical arteriovenous shunt

Abstract

© 2015 Wichtig Publishing. As more end-stage renal disease patients require hemodialysis and live longer, many will fail to develop or maintain a functioning upper extremity vascular access. When a patient exhausts vascular access sites in the upper extremities, new fistulas and grafts can be constructed in the lower extremities, thorax, and abdomen as long as a pair of proximate artery and vein provide adequate blood inflow and outflow, respectively. When only a moderate size vein with adequate blood flow provides a conduit to either a patent superior or inferior vena cava, inserting a double-lumen venous hemodialysis catheter can provide temporary or permanent access. We review the literature and report the unusual sites for hemodialysis vascular access and catheter placement.

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