Unusual sites for hemodialysis vascular access construction and catheter placement: A review
International Journal of Artificial Organs
Arteriovenous fistula; Central venous catheter; End-stage renal disease; Hemodialysis; Surgical arterioarterial fistula; Surgical arteriovenous shunt
© 2015 Wichtig Publishing. As more end-stage renal disease patients require hemodialysis and live longer, many will fail to develop or maintain a functioning upper extremity vascular access. When a patient exhausts vascular access sites in the upper extremities, new fistulas and grafts can be constructed in the lower extremities, thorax, and abdomen as long as a pair of proximate artery and vein provide adequate blood inflow and outflow, respectively. When only a moderate size vein with adequate blood flow provides a conduit to either a patent superior or inferior vena cava, inserting a double-lumen venous hemodialysis catheter can provide temporary or permanent access. We review the literature and report the unusual sites for hemodialysis vascular access and catheter placement.
Lew, S., Nguyen, B., & Ing, T. (2015). Unusual sites for hemodialysis vascular access construction and catheter placement: A review. International Journal of Artificial Organs, 38 (6). http://dx.doi.org/10.5301/ijao.5000416