Congenital cricopharyngeal achalasia: Management with botulinum toxin before myotomy
Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
Cricopharyngeal (CP) achalasia is a rare condition of unknown etiology in which the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) fails to open properly during deglutition.1 The normal UES is tonically closed to prevent the inflow of air into the esophagus during inspiration and the regurgitation of food from the esophagus back into the pharynx.2,3 The UES briefly relaxes during deglutition, belching, or emesis.2.
Sewell, R., & Bauman, N. (2005). Congenital cricopharyngeal achalasia: Management with botulinum toxin before myotomy. Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, 131 (5). http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archotol.131.5.451