Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Volume 13, Issue 1
Numerous medical and psychiatric conditions can cause agitation, some of these causes are life threatening. It is important to be able to differentiate between medical and non-medical causes of agitation so that patients can receive appropriate and timely treatment. This article aims to educate all clinicians in non-medical settings, such as mental health clinics, and medical settings on the differing levels of severity in agitation, basic triage, use of de-escalation, and factors, symptoms, and signs in determining whether a medical etiology is likely. Lastly, this article focuses on the medical workup of agitation when a medical etiology is suspected or when etiology is unclear. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(1):3–10.]
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Nordstrom, K., Zun, L. S., Wilson, M. P., Stiebel, V., Ng, A. T., Bregman, B., & Anderson, E. L. (2012). Medical evaluation and triage of the agitated patient: Consensus statement of the american association for emergency psychiatry project BETA medical evaluation workgroup. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 13(1), 3-10.