Integrating three-dimensional printing and nanotechnology for musculoskeletal regeneration
3D bioprinting; osteochondral tissue; tissue engineering
© 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd. The field of tissue engineering is advancing steadily, partly due to advancements in rapid prototyping technology. Even with increasing focus, successful complex tissue regeneration of vascularized bone, cartilage and the osteochondral interface remains largely illusive. This review examines current three-dimensional printing techniques and their application towards bone, cartilage and osteochondral regeneration. The importance of, and benefit to, nanomaterial integration is also highlighted with recent published examples. Early-stage successes and challenges of recent studies are discussed, with an outlook to future research in the related areas.
Nowicki, M., Castro, N., Rao, R., Plesniak, M., & Zhang, L. (2017). Integrating three-dimensional printing and nanotechnology for musculoskeletal regeneration. Nanotechnology, 28 (38). http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aa8351