Alzheimers and Dementia (Amsterdam)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is found in 30%-50% of individuals with HIV infection. To date, no HIV+ individual has been reported to have a positive amyloid PET scan. We report a 71-year-old HIV+ individual with HAND. Clinical and neuropsychologic evaluations confirmed a progressive mild dementia. A routine brain MRI was normal for age. [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET revealed mild hypermetabolism in bilateral basal ganglia and hypometabolism of bilateral parietal cortex including the posterior cingulate/precuneus. Resting state functional MRI revealed altered connectivity as found with individuals with mild AD. CSF examination revealed a low Aβ42/tau index but a low phospho-tau. An amyloid PET/CT with [18F]florbetaben revealed pronounced cortical radiotracer deposition. This case report suggests that progressive dementia in older HIV+ individuals may be due to HAND, AD, or both. HIV infection does not preclude CNS Aβ/amyloid deposition. Amyloid PET imaging may be of value in distinguishing HAND from AD pathologies.
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Turner, R., Chadwick, M., Horton, W., Simon, G. L., Jiang, X., & Esposito, G. (2016). An Individual With Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Dementia, and Central Nervous System Amyloid Deposition. Alzheimers and Dementia (Amsterdam), 4 (). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dadm.2016.03.009