Inverse correlation of serum paraoxonase and homocysteine thiolactonase activities and antioxidant capacity of high-density lipoprotein with the severity of cardiovascular disease in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Atherosclerotic risk is increased in diabetes partly because of increased plasma levels of the oxidized low-density lipoprotein and homocysteine, 2 independent and important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Paraoxonase (PON) is a multifunctional antioxidant enzyme component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), which can protect against low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. It also exhibits homocysteine thiolactonase (HCTL) activity that detoxifies homocysteine thiolactone, which can damage proteins by homocysteinylation of the lysine residues, thus leading to atherosclerosis. We conducted a cross-sectional study to correlate PON-1, HCTL activities, and the lag time of LDL oxidation in 15 healthy control subjects and in 55 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus with different degrees of CVD. Compared with healthy controls and diabetic subjects without evidence of overt CVD, we not only found 47% (P < .005) decrease in PON-1 activity, but also for the first time, 30% (P = .019) decrease in HCTL activity in subjects with a prior coronary artery bypass surgery. There was corresponding decreased effectiveness of HDLs from diabetic groups (with and without CVD) in protecting against LDL oxidation. Moreover, the PON-1 activity was significantly inversely correlated to the extent of intracoronary lesions determined at catheterization (ie, a high Gensini score). These decreases in PON-1 and HCTL activity were not due to any bias in preferential distribution of low-activity QQ homozygotes in the diabetic groups compared with the control group because QQ allele was equally distributed in all the experimental groups, whereas RR allele tended to increase in the diabetic subjects with coronary artery bypass surgery compared with the other groups. Therefore, clinical intervention to restore the impaired antiatherogenic activities of HDL should be considered an important goal in the treatment of persons with diabetes. © 2006.
Lakshman, M., Gottipati, C., Narasimhan, S., Munoz, J., Marmillot, P., & Nylen, E. (2006). Inverse correlation of serum paraoxonase and homocysteine thiolactonase activities and antioxidant capacity of high-density lipoprotein with the severity of cardiovascular disease in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, 55 (9). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2006.06.001