Experimental modeling of acute pyelonephritis

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Urologiia (Moscow, Russia : 1999)




animal anesthesia; experimental animals; experimental models of pyelonephritis; upper urinary tract infection; uropatogens


Acute pyelonephritis (AP) predominates among inflammatory infection kidney affections. In accordance to international classifications, AP is an upper urinary tract infection, subdivided into non-complicated (non-obstructive) and complicated (obstructive) forms. The clinical significance of AP presently is defined by the conditions frequent occurrence and its progression into chronic kidney disease. For a limited number of pathogens the involvement in AP is considered proven: representatives of the Enterobacteriaceae family (E.coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., etc.), Pseudomonas spp., a number of gram-positive microorganisms (S.aureus, Enterococcus spp.). Beside that, over the last 3 decades there have been rare publications in the world literature describing clinical cases of AP caused by microorganisms not readily cultivated on standard mediums (mostly anaerobic). This was accompanied by an idea that AP might develop in case of kidney invasion not only by aerobic, but also by anaerobic microorganisms, which is practically not taken into account in current clinical practice. In this regard it was deemed feasible to perform an analysis of experimental disease models to refine the discussion points of the disease etiology, to do so an attempt of all-encompassing study in the Russian and English literature databases (linical Key, MEDLINE, PubMed, HighWire Press, The Cochrane Library, BioMed Central, Central scientific medical library of the I.M. Sechenov Moscow medical academy, Russian State Library). A total of 356 literature sources have been studied, of which 41 were selected for the current review.

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