124I Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Versus Conventional Radioiodine Imaging in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: A Review

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Journal Article

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123 I scan; 124 I PET/CT; 131 I scan; detection; differentiated thyroid cancer


© Copyright 2019, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers 2019. Background: Studies report a wide spectrum of 124I positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) sensitivity and specificity in the detection of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) lesions. This study reviews the lesion detection rate of pretherapy 124I PET/CT in different patient populations and further analyzes the factors necessary for a better detection on 124I PET/CT. Methods: A literature search was performed using multiple different databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Northern Lights, and handsearching) covering 1996 to April 2018. Two reviewers reviewed and extracted study data for 124I, 123I, and 131I scans in DTC. Results: This review includes 4 retrospective and 10 prospective studies in which 495 DTC patients underwent 124I and 131I imaging; no studies made comparisons with 123I. In the reports that compared 124I PET/CT with diagnostic 131I scans, there were a total of 72 patients in whom 120 lesions were detected on 124I imaging, whereas only 52 were detected on diagnostic 131I scans. In publications that compared 124I with post-therapy 131I scans in 266 patients, 410 lesions were detected with 124I PET, whereas 390 were detected on post-therapy 131I scans. Based on 124I PET/CT in six studies, TNM staging was revised in 15-21% of patients, and disease management was altered in 5-29% of patients. Conclusions: 124I PET/CT is able to identify a greater number of foci compared with diagnostic 131I scans. 124I PET may have better detection compared with post-therapy 131I scans in patients who are 131I therapy naive, have less aggressive pathology, or do not have disseminated lung metastases. Additional metastatic lesion detection by 124I PET may have a significant clinical impact in the management of patients before 131I therapy in some patients.

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