Excretory/Secretory Proteome of Females and Males of the Hookworm
Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland)
Ancylostoma ceylanicum; ESP; excretory/secretory; hookworm; proteomics
The dynamic host-parasite mechanisms underlying hookworm infection establishment and maintenance in mammalian hosts remain poorly understood but are primarily mediated by hookworm's excretory/secretory products (ESPs), which have a wide spectrum of biological functions. We used ultra-high performance mass spectrometry to comprehensively profile and compare female and male ESPs from the zoonotic human hookworm , which is a natural parasite of dogs, cats, and humans. We improved the genome annotation, decreasing the number of protein-coding genes by 49% while improving completeness from 92 to 96%. Compared to the previous genome annotation, we detected 11% and 10% more spectra in female and male ESPs, respectively, using this improved version, identifying a total of 795 ESPs (70% in both sexes, with the remaining sex-specific). Using functional databases (KEGG, GO and Interpro), common and sex-specific enriched functions were identified. Comparisons with the exclusively human-infective hookworm identified species-specific and conserved ESPs. This is the first study identifying ESPs from female and male . The findings provide a deeper understanding of hookworm protein functions that assure long-term host survival and facilitate future engineering of transgenic hookworms and analysis of regulatory elements mediating the high-level expression of ESPs. Furthermore, the findings expand the list of potential vaccine and diagnostic targets and identify biologics that can be explored for anti-inflammatory potential.
Uzoechi, Samuel C.; Rosa, Bruce A.; Singh, Kumar Sachin; Choi, Young-Jun; Bracken, Bethany K.; Brindley, Paul J.; Townsend, R Reid; Sprung, Robert; Zhan, Bin; Bottazzi, Maria-Elena; Hawdon, John M.; Wong, Yide; Loukas, Alex; Djuranovic, Sergej; and Mitreva, Makedonka, "Excretory/Secretory Proteome of Females and Males of the Hookworm" (2023). GW Authored Works. Paper 2295.
Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine