Novel Therapeutics in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Focus on Adult Stem Cells
Metabolic syndrome and related disorders
NAFLD; antioxidants; liver; obesity; stem cells
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disorder that is associated with abnormal accumulation of fat in the liver, which can lead to a wide variety of pathological liver defects and associated insulin resistance (IR), obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The molecular mechanisms that cause the initiation and progression of NAFLD are not fully understood. Increased lipolysis and hepatic lipid synthesis lead to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species and inflammation. Both these two entities could be interrelated and be an important mechanistic pathway, which can lead to tissue injury and hepatic cell death. Mechanisms for worsening of NAFLD include mitochondrial abnormalities, downregulation of glutathione (GSH), decreased activity of GSH-dependent antioxidants, accumulation of activated macrophages, hepatic inflammation, systemic inflammation, IR, and poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although no specific therapy has been approved for NAFLD, we review the latest medical therapeutics with emphasis on stem cell-based possibilities based on the presumed pathophysiology of NAFLD.
Nandula, Seshagiri Rao; Nylen, Eric S.; and Sen, Sabyasachi, "Novel Therapeutics in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Focus on Adult Stem Cells" (2023). GW Authored Works. Paper 2284.