Milken Institute School of Public Health Poster Presentations (Marvin Center & Video)

Title

Effects of Exercise on Complications of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) During Pregnancy

Poster Number

71

Document Type

Poster

Status

Undergraduate Student

Abstract Category

Exercise and Nutrition Sciences

Keywords

gestational diabetes; aerobic activity; Caesarian sections; birth weight; preterm birth

Publication Date

4-2017

Abstract

Background: GDM is defined as carbohydrate intolerance that first occurs or is first recognized during pregnancy. According to a study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2010, GDM affects as many as 9.2% of pregnancies in the United States.1 Effects of GDM include macrosomia, which leads to large-for gestational-age (LGA) fetuses. Complications for the mother include preeclampsia, increased risk of cesarean delivery, and development of type 2 diabetes. In addition, pregnancies complicated by GDM may result in long-term complications for the child, such as increased risk for glucose intolerance, diabetes, and obesity.1 The purpose of this systematic review is to determine whether physical activity is effective in preventing/reducing complications associated with GDM.

Methods: Keywords related to GDM, physical activity, and pregnancy outcomes were used to search PubMed, Cochrane, CINHAL, and Scopus. Search terms included birth weight, Caesarian sections, gestational diabetes, aerobic activity, and several others. Studies were excluded for the following reasons: not a randomized trial; study participants did not have a diagnosis of GDM; or the study did not have an exercise intervention. Any form of physical activity was included, regardless of the type.

Results: The initial search generated 808 references. A study was excluded if it did not meet the inclusion criteria, was not a completed study, and if it involved a combined diet and exercise intervention where effects of the exercise component could not be independently assessed. Therefore, of the 808 articles identified, only five were ultimately included in the review. Taken together, no differences in rate of caesarian deliveries or infant birth weight were observed between the control and experimental groups.

Discussion: The current literature review did not demonstrate differences in mode of delivery or infant birth weight in women with GDM who were randomized to exercise interventions compared to women with GDM who were assigned to the control. It is unclear if this lack of an effect is due to the studies starting at a gestational age between 24-34 weeks, rather than earlier in pregnancy. Despite the lack of effects of exercise on infant birth weight and rate of Caesarian delivery, it is important to evaluate effects of exercise during pregnancy on other neonatal and obstetric outcomes in this population.

REFERENCE

1. DeSisto CL, Kim SY, Sharma AJ. Prevalence Estimates of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in the United States, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2007–2010. Prev Chronic Dis 2014;11:130415.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Open Access

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Comments

Poster to be presented at GW Annual Research Days 2017.

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Effects of Exercise on Complications of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) During Pregnancy

Background: GDM is defined as carbohydrate intolerance that first occurs or is first recognized during pregnancy. According to a study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2010, GDM affects as many as 9.2% of pregnancies in the United States.1 Effects of GDM include macrosomia, which leads to large-for gestational-age (LGA) fetuses. Complications for the mother include preeclampsia, increased risk of cesarean delivery, and development of type 2 diabetes. In addition, pregnancies complicated by GDM may result in long-term complications for the child, such as increased risk for glucose intolerance, diabetes, and obesity.1 The purpose of this systematic review is to determine whether physical activity is effective in preventing/reducing complications associated with GDM.

Methods: Keywords related to GDM, physical activity, and pregnancy outcomes were used to search PubMed, Cochrane, CINHAL, and Scopus. Search terms included birth weight, Caesarian sections, gestational diabetes, aerobic activity, and several others. Studies were excluded for the following reasons: not a randomized trial; study participants did not have a diagnosis of GDM; or the study did not have an exercise intervention. Any form of physical activity was included, regardless of the type.

Results: The initial search generated 808 references. A study was excluded if it did not meet the inclusion criteria, was not a completed study, and if it involved a combined diet and exercise intervention where effects of the exercise component could not be independently assessed. Therefore, of the 808 articles identified, only five were ultimately included in the review. Taken together, no differences in rate of caesarian deliveries or infant birth weight were observed between the control and experimental groups.

Discussion: The current literature review did not demonstrate differences in mode of delivery or infant birth weight in women with GDM who were randomized to exercise interventions compared to women with GDM who were assigned to the control. It is unclear if this lack of an effect is due to the studies starting at a gestational age between 24-34 weeks, rather than earlier in pregnancy. Despite the lack of effects of exercise on infant birth weight and rate of Caesarian delivery, it is important to evaluate effects of exercise during pregnancy on other neonatal and obstetric outcomes in this population.

REFERENCE

1. DeSisto CL, Kim SY, Sharma AJ. Prevalence Estimates of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in the United States, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2007–2010. Prev Chronic Dis 2014;11:130415.